The territory of modern-day Georgia has been inhabited by Homo erectus since the Paleolithic Era. The proto-Georgian tribes first appear in written history in the XIIc BC. Archaeological finds references in ancient sources reveal elements of early political and state formations characterized by advanced metallurgy and goldsmith techniques dated back to the VII c BC and beyond.


The classic period saw the rise of the early Georgian states Diauehi (XIII BC) of Colchis (VIII BC), of Sper (VII BC) and of Iberia (VI BC). In the 4th century BC a unified kingdom of Georgia – an early example of advanced state organization under one king and an aristocratic hierarchy – was established. Sargon II (722–705 BC) of the Assyrian empire conquered the Georgian state of Tabal and all of the Hittite kingdoms of the Taurus Mountains.


The two early Georgian kingdoms of late antiquity, known to Greco-Roman historiography as Colchis  (in the west) and Iberia  (in the east), were among the first nations in the region to adopt Christianity (in AD 337, or in AD 319 as recent research suggests).


The early kingdoms disintegrated into various feudal regions by the early Middle Ages. This made it easy for Arabs to conquer most of eastern Georgia in the 7th century. From 7th century to 10th century, Georgia was part of the Khazar empire. The various independent regions would not be united into a single Georgian Kingdom until the beginning of the 11th century.


The Georgian Kingdom reached its zenith in the 12th to early 13th centuries. This period has been widely termed as Georgia's Golden Age or Georgian Renaissance during the reigns of David the Builder and Queen Tamar. This early Georgian renaissance, which preceded its West European analogue, was characterized by the flourishing of romantic-chivalric tradition, breakthroughs in philosophy, and an array of political innovations in society and state organization, including religious and ethnic tolerance.


In 1783, Russia and the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti signed the Treaty of Georgievsk, which recognized the bond of Orthodox Christianity between Russian and Georgian people and promised eastern Georgia protection


After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Georgia declared independence on May 26, 1918. In February 1921, Georgia was attacked by the Red Army. The Georgian army was defeated and the Social-Democrat government fled the country. On February 25, 1921 the Red Army entered the capital Tbilisi and installed a Moscow directed communist government.


On April 9, 1991, shortly before the collapse of the Soviet Union, Georgia declared independence.  Since 1992 Georgia is the member of UN